The Potential of Constructed Wetlands for Liquid Waste Management in Small and Medium-Scale Tannery: A Literature Review

Main Article Content

Febriani Purba


The leather tanning industry or tannery, mainly in the small and medium scale (SMEs), is not environmentally friendly. Limited capitals drive the SMEs-scale tanneries to dispose of liquid waste directly into water bodies without proper treatment.  It might cause serious environmental problems due to the high content of COD, BOD, chromium, and dyes.  Treatment of liquid waste using constructed wetlands has been widely used because it is efficient, cheap, and powerful. This review discusses the latest studies in the wastewater treatment of tanneries using phytoremediation techniques and constructed wetlands and their potential applications in the SMEs tanneries.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Purba, F. (2021). The Potential of Constructed Wetlands for Liquid Waste Management in Small and Medium-Scale Tannery: A Literature Review. TROPICAL WETLAND JOURNAL, 7(1), 1-9.


Ali, H., Khan, E., Sajad, M.A. (2013). Phytoremediation of heavy metals: concepts and applications. Chemosphere, 91:869–881.
Aravindhan, R., Madhan, B., Rao, J.R., Nair, U., Ramasami, T. (2004). Bioaccumulation of chromium from tannery wastewater: An approach for chrome recovery. Environmental science and technology. American chemical society, 38(1): 300-306.
Batty, L.C., Baker, A.J., Wheeler, B.D. (2002). Aluminum and Phosphate Uptake by Phragmites australis: the Role of Fe, Mn, and al Root Plaques. Annals of Botany, 89: 443–449.
Chauhan, S., Das, M., Nigam, H., Pandey, P., Swati, P., Tiwari, A., Yadav, M. (2015). Implementation of phytoremediation to remediate heavy metals from tannery waste: A review. Advanced in Applied Science Research, 6(3): 119-128.
Cheung, K., Gu, J.D. (2007). Mechanism of hexavalent chromium detoxification by microorganisms and bioremediation application potential: a review. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 59(1): 8-15
Chidambaram, A., Sundaramoorthy, P., Murugan, A., Ganesh, K.S. (2009). Chromium-induced cytotoxicity in black gram. J. Environ Health. Sci. Eng., 6: 17–22.
Cristina, S.C., Calheiros, Rangel, A.O.S.S., Castro, P.M.L. (2007). Constructed wetland systems vegetated with different plants applied to the treatment of tannery wastewater. Water Research, 41: 1790-1798.
Cunningham, S.D., Ow, D.W. (1996). Promises and prospect of phytoremediation. Plant Physiol, 110: 715–719.
Daniel, R. (1998). You are now entering the root zone-investigation: the potential of reed beds for treating wastewaters from leather manufacture. World Leather, 11(7): 48–50.
Daniels, R. (2001). Enter the root-zone: green technology for the leather manufacturer, part 1. World Leather, 14(4), 63–67.
Etim, E.E. (2012). Phytoremediation and its mechanisms: a review. Int. J. Environ. Bioenergy, 2(3): 120–136.
Galanopoulos, Christos, Sazakli, Eleni, Leotsinidis, Michalis, Lyberatos, Gerasimos. (2013). A pilot-scale study for modeling a free water surface constructed wetlands wastewater treatment system. J. Environ. Chem. Eng., 1: 642-651.
Ghosh, M., Singh, S. (2005). A review on phytoremediation of heavy metals and utilization of it’s by products. Asian J Energy Environ, 6(4): 18.
Hefez, A.L., El-Manharawy, M.S., Khedr, M.A. (2002). RO Membrane Removal of Unreacted Chromium from Spent tanning Effluent: A Pilot-Scale Study, Part 2.
ITRC. 2003. Technical and regulatory guidance document for constructed treatment wetlands. The Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council Wetlands Team. 128 pp.
Kacaoba, S., Akcin, G. (2002). Removal and Recovery of Chromium and Chromium Speciation with MINTEQA2. Talanta, 57: 23-30.
Khan, A.G. (2001). Relationships between Chromium Biomanification Ratio, Accumulation Factor, and Mycorrhizae in Plants Growing on tannery effluent-Polluted soil. Environ. Int., 26: 417-423.
Khandare, R.V., Kabra, A.N., Kurade, M.B., Govindwar, S.P. (2011)a. Phytoremediation potential of Portulaca grandiflora Hook. (Moss-Rose) in degrading a sulfonated diazo reactive dye Navy Blue HE2R (Reactive Blue 172). Bioresour. Technol., 102: 6774– 6777.
Khandare, R.V., Kabra, A.N., Kurade, M.B., Govindwar, S.P. (2011)b. The role of Aster amellus Linn in the degradation of a sulfonated azo dye Ramazol Red: a phytoremediation strategy. Chemosphere, 82: 1147–1154.
Lu, S., Wang, J., Pei, L. (2016). Study on the effects of irrigation with reclaimed water on the content and distribution of heavy metals in soil. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 13: 298.
Lone, M.I., He, Z., Stoffella, P.J. and Yang, X. 2008. Phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils and water: Progresses and perspectives. Journal of Zhejiang University Science, 9(3): 210-220.
Malik, N., Biswas, A.K. (2012). Role of higher plants in the remediation of metal contaminated soils. Sci. Rev. Chem. Commun., 2: 141–146.
Matamoros, Víctor, Salvado, Victoria. (2012). Evaluation of the seasonal performance of a water reclamation pond-constructed wetland system for removing emerging contaminants. Chemosphere, 86(2): 111-117.
Matagi, S.V., Swai, D., Mugabe, R. (1998). A review of heavy metal removal mechanisms in wetlands. African Journal for Tropical Hydrobiology and Fisheries, 8: 23–35.
Mayo, A.W., Bigambo, T. (2015). Nitrogen transformation in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland I: Model Development. Journal of Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 30: 658-667.
Memon, A.R., Aktoprakligil, D., Ozdemir, A., Vertii, A. (2001). Heavy metal accumulation and detoxification mechanisms in plants. Turk. J. Bot., 25: 111–121.
Memon, A.R., Schroder, P. (2009). Implication of metal accumulation mechanisms to phytoremediation. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 16: 162–175.
Mitsch, W.J., Gosselink, J.G. (1993). Wetlands. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 722 pp.
Noller, B.N., Woods, P.H., Ross, B.J. (1994). Case studies of wetland filtration of mine wastewater in constructed and naturally occurring systems in northern Australia. Water Science and Technology, 29: 257–266.
Philip L., Iyengar L., Venkobachar. (1998). Chromium(VI) reduction from Bacillus coagulans isolated from contaminated soil. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 124: 730 165-1170.
Purba, F., Suparno, O., Suryani, A. (2020). Green Productivity in the Indonesian Leather-Tanning Industry. Revista de Pielărie Încălţăminte. 20(3): 245-266.
Raskin, I., Ensley, B.D. (2000). Recent developments for in situ treatment of metal contaminated soils. In: Phytoremediation of Toxic Metals: Using Plants to Clean Up the Environment. John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York.
Shao, Ling, Wu, Zi, Zeng L, Chen ZM, Zhou Y, Chen GC. 2013. Embodied energy assessment for ecological wastewater treatment by a constructed wetland. Ecol. Model. 252, 63-71
Sheoran, A.S., Sheoran, V. (2005). Heavy metal removal mechanism of acid mine drainage in wetlands: A critical review. Minerals Engineering Journal, 19: 105-116.
Sheoran, V., Sheoran, A., Poonia, P. (2011). Role of hyperaccumulators in phytoextraction of metals from contaminated mining sites: a review. Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol., 41: 168–214.
Sinha, R.K., Herat, S., Tandon, P.K. (2007). Phytoremediation: role of plants in contaminated site management. In: Singh SN, Tripathi RD. (Eds.), Environmental Bioremediation Technologies. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 315–330.
Song, Z., Williams, C.J., Edyvean, R.G.J. (2000). Sedimentation of tannery wastewater. Water Res., 34(7): 2171–2176.
Sureshvarr, K., Bharathiraja, B., Jayakumar, M., Jayamuthunagai, J., Balaji, L. (2010). Removal of azo-dye compounds from paper industries wastes using phytoremediation methodology. Int. J.Chem. Sci., 8(1): 687–700.
Stumm, W., Morgan, J. (1981). Aquatic Chemistry. second ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 780 pp.
Tangahu, B.V., Abdullah, S.R.S., Basri, H., Idris, M., Anuar, N., Mukhlisin, M. (2011). A review on heavy metals (As, Pb, and Hg) uptake by plants through phytoremediation. Int. J. Chem. Eng., 201: 1–31.
Vymazal, J. (2005). Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in Europe. In: Dunne EJ, Reddy R, Carton OT, editors. Nutrient management in agricultural watersheds: a wetland solution. Wageningen, The Netherlands: Wageningen Academic Publishers; 2005a. p. 230–44.
Walker DJ, Hurl S. 2002. The reduction of heavy metals in a storm water wetland. Ecological Engineering, 18 (4), 407–414.
Wiebner A, Kappelmeyer U, Kuschk P, Kastner M. 2005. Influence of the redox condition dynamics on the removal efficiency of a laboratory-scale constructed wetland. Water Research, 29: 248–256.
Yazid M, Bastianudin A, Usada W. 2007. Seleksi Bakteri Pereduksi Krom di Dalam Limbah Cair Industri Penyamakan Kulit Menggunakan Metode Ozonisasi. Prosiding PPI-PDIPTN 2007. Pustek Akselerator dan Proses Bahan-BATAN. Yogyakarta.